Physics
8.422 Spring 2013
Atomic
and


Room 
Tel. 

Lecturers: 
Prof. Wolfgang Ketterle 
26243 
2536815 

Assistants: 
Alexei Bylinskii 
26225 


Lawrence Cheuk 
26267 


Niklas Jepsen 
26269 


Jee Woo Park 
26265 
4525285 


Molu Shi 
26213 

Secretary: 
Joanna Keseberg 
26237 
2536830 
Lectures: Mondays, Wednesdays
(and some Fridays 3/1, 3/22, 4/12 – room 4237, 5/17 Room 37212)
1:002:30, Room 37212
First day of classes: Wed, 2/6
Office hours: WK: Thu 1:302:30, or by appointment (just send an email ….)
TAs: announced on problem sets, and by appointment
Homework drop off: In class, or in 26237
Term papers due: Fri, 5/17/2013 (day of last class) Please email to WK
Main topics:
·
Quantum states and dynamics of photons
·
PhotonAtom interactions: basics and semiclassical approximations
·
PhotonAtom interactions: open system dynamics, optical Bloch equations
·
Applications and limits of the optical Bloch equations: dressed atoms,
light force, decoherence
·
Cold atoms, quantum states, and quantum dynamics: quantum algorithms and
protocols, ion traps, magnetic traps, evaporative cooling, BoseEinstein
condensation
Web Site for 2011 Web Site for 8.421
Atomic Physics Wiki with Typed Lecture Notes
Homework
HW 1 due Feb. 22 
Solutions 
HW 2 due Mon March 4 
Solutions 
HW 3 due Mon March 11 
Solutions 
HW 4 due Mon March 18 
Solutions 
HW5 due Mon April 1 
Solutions 
HW 6 due Mon, April 8 
Solutions 
HW 7 due Wed, April 17 
Solutions 
HW 8 due Mon, April 22 
Solutions 
HW 9 due on Fri, May 3 
Solutions 
HW 10, due on Fri, May 10 
Solutions 
MIT Stellar grade management Course requirements
Course info and calendar Recommended books
Course outline
1. Introduction, atomlight Hamiltonian (L12)
2. Quantum light: states and dynamics (L38)
3. Photonatom interactions (L910)
4. Optical Bloch equations (L1114)
5. Light forces (L1519)
6. BoseEinstein Condensates and Ultracold Atoms (L2024)
7. Ion traps and quantum information (L2526)
Class WriteUps:
L1 Introduction (Feb. 6)
L2 QED Hamiltonian (Feb. 11)
L3 Quantum description of light (Feb. 13, 19)
L4 Nonclassical light, squeezing (Feb. 20, 25) Clicker questions
L5 Single photons (Feb. 27, March 1)
L6 Entangled states (March 1, March 4, March 6)
L7 Metrology, shot noise and Heisenberg limit (March 6 and 18)
L8 g_2 for atoms and light (March 18, 20)
L9 Diagrams for lightatom interactions (March 20, 22)
L10 van der Waals and Casimir interactions (3/22, 4/1)
L11 Casimir force (4/1)
L12 Resonant interactions (4/1, 4/3))
L13 Derivation of optical Bloch equations (4/3, 4/8)
L14
Solutions of optical Bloch equations (4/10, 4/14)
Nature
paper on engineered dissipation
L15 Unraveling Open System Quantum Dynamics (4/22)
L16 Light forces part 1 (4/29) part 2 (5/1)
L17 Dressed atom part 1 (5/1)
part 2 (forces and sub Doppler and sub
recoil cooling) 5/6, 5/8
L18 Techniques for ultralow temperatures (magnetic trapping, evap. cooling) 5/8, 5/13
L19 Bose gases, BEC, superfluid to Mott insulator transition 5/13, 5/15
L20 Fermi gases, BECBCS crossover 5/17
L21 Ion trapping and quantum gates 5/17
Additional
reading material
L1 Introduction
Recent advances in
AMO physics
Topics of this
course
8.421 vs. 8.422
Requirements
L2 The QED Hamiltonian
Viewgraphs
used in class: Download
Reading:
The discussion follows
the appendix in Atom –Photon Interactions.
Please read pp. 621
– 643 Download
Further
reading:
A 500page
derivation and discussion of the basic equations of QED can be found in
· CohenTannoudji, Claude, DupontRoc, Jaques, and Grynberg, Gilbert, Photons & Atoms, WileyInterscience, 1997.
I would recommend consulting this book whenever you
want to know more about the “exact” formulation of the theory. I am always amazed how easily you can open
this book in the middle and still understand the explanations.
L3 Quantum description of light
Handouts:
Loudon,
chapter 3; Weissbluth,
4.44.8
Further
reading:
Yamamoto and Rempe
group papers (example of single photon g^{(2)}(tau) meas.)
L4 Nonclassical light
Further reading:
Weissbluth,
4.9 . Section on squeezed states
H.J.
Kimble, Quantum fluctuations in quantum
optics, in Les Houches 1990. Extensive
and advanced treatment of squeezed light.
R.W. Henry and S. C. Glotzer, A
squeezedstate primer, Am. J. Phys. 56, 318
(1988). Basic discussion
using only elementary quantum mechanics.
M.C. Teich and B. E. A. Saleh Squeezed
and AntiBunched Light, Physics Today, June
1990. Popular article on
nonclassical light.
Generation
of squeezed states, classical squeezing
F.
DiFilippo et al, Classical Amplitude Squeezing for Precision
Measurements. PRL, 68, 2859 (1992).
Teleportation
A.
Furusawa et al, Unconditional Quantum Teleportation.
Science, 282, 706 (1998) .
Beam splitter and homodyne detection
B.L. Schumaker, “Noise in homodyne
detection”, Optics Letters 9, 189 (1984)
Experiments with squeezed light
LingAn Wu, H.J. Kimble, J.L. Hall, H. Wu, “Generation of Squeezed States by
Parametric Down Conversion”, PRL 57, 2520 (1986)
Min Xiao, LingAn Wu, H.J. Kimble, “Precision Measurement beyond the
ShotNoise Limit”, PRL 59, 279 (1987)
E.S. Polzik, J. Carri, H.J. Kimble, “Spectroscopy with Squeezed Light”,
PRL 68, 3020 (1992)
L5 Single photons
L6 Entangled states
C. A. Sackett, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, C. Langer,
V. Meyer, C. J. Myatt, M. Rowe, Q. A. Turchette, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland,
C. Monroe, “Experimental
entanglement of four particles”, Nature 404, 256 (2000)
Excerpts from Nielsen and Chuang Quantum Computation
and Quantum Information on Schmidt
Decomposition
L7 Metrology, shot noise and Heisenberg limit
Vittorio Giovannetti, Seth Lloyd, Lorenzo Maccone, “QuantumEnhanced
Measurements: Beating the Standard Quantum Limit”, preprint
quantph/0412078
Proposal for atom interferometry:
P. Bouyer, M. A. Kasevich, “Heisenberglimited
spectroscopy with degenerate BoseEinstein gases”, PRA 56, R1083 (1997)
Creation of correlated states with BoseEinstein
condensates:
J.M. Vogels, J. K. Chin, and W. Ketterle, “Coherent
Collisions between BoseEinstein Condensates”, PRL 90, 030403 (2003).
L8 g_2 for atoms and light
Reading: some pages from Gordon Baym, Lectures on Quantum Mechanics
PRL on HBT
experiment with cold atoms
2007 Nature paper
L9 Diagrams for lightatom interactions
L10/11 van der Waals and Casimir interactions
see API, pp. 118126
Physics
Today paper by L. Spruch (Nov. 1986, p. 37)
Copies from Serge Haroche’s summer school notes
Jaffe paper on Casimir force and zeropoint energy
L12 Resonant scattering and radiative corrections
Reading: API, Chapter III
Further reading: J. Dalibard, J. DupontRoc and C. CohenTannoudji, Vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction: identification of their respective contributions, J. Physique 43, 16171638 (1982).
L13/14 Derivation and solutions of Optical Bloch equations
Reading: API
257 – 333, lecture notes
L15 Unraveling open quantum systems
Reading: lecture notes
Original 1992 paper on QMC wave function method Link
L16/17 Light forces, dressed atom
Reading: API 370 – 379
First realization of molasses Link
Advanced reading on friction force in a standing
wave
pp. 3435 in :
C. CohenTannoudji, “Atomic Motion in Laser Light”, in “Fundamental
Systems in Quantum Optics”, Les Houches, Session LIII, 1990, ed. by J.
Dalibard, J.M. Raimond and J. Zinn Justin, pp. 1164 (Elsevier Science
Publisher B.V., 1992, Link
J.P. Gordon and A. Ashkin, PRA 21, 1606 (1980) Link
Dressed atom and dipole forces
Reading: API Chapter VI – worth reading!
Important paper:
J. Dalibard and C. CohenTannoudji, JOSA B 1985 Link
Spontaneous light force traps
Magnetooptical
trap, Optical Earnshaw theorem
W.D. Phillips, Laser cooling and trapping of
neutral atoms, in Laser Manipulation of Atoms and Ions, edited by E.
Arimondo, W.D. Phillips, and F. Strumia, Proceedings of the International
School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”, Course CXVIII (NorthHolland, Amsterdam,
1992) Download
pp. 316 – 355 has a nice summary on dipole traps and raditation pressure traps
Original papers:
Optical Earnshaw theorem (OET): Ashkin and Gordon
How to circumvent the OET: Pritchard et al.
Realization of the MOT: Raab et al.
L18 Techniques for ultralow temperatures
SubDoppler and SubRecoil cooling
Magnetic trapping
Further reading: W. K., D.S. Durfee, D.M. StamperKurn,
Varenna Lecture Notes 1999, pp. 8089
Evaporative cooling
Further reading:: W. Ketterle and
N.J. van Druten, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37, 181236 (1986). Relevant pages: pp. 181193
L19 Bose gases, BEC, superfluid to Mott insulator transition
Variational derivation of GrossPitaevski equation:
J. RogelSalazar. Eur. J. Phys. 34 (2013) 247–257 Link
BoseEinstein Condensation in Dilute
Gases, C.J. Pethick and H. Smith, selected
pages
On Bogoliubov transformation and
collective excitation: pp. 205214
On nonlinear Schrödinger equation: pp. 146156
On hydrodynamics: pp. 165179
Mean field theory of the superfluid
to Mott insulator transition
D. van Oosten, P.
van der Straten, and H. T. C. Stoof, PRA
63, 053601
(2001) Link
L20 BECBCS crossover in fermions
Varenna notes on ultracold fermions Link
L21 Trapped ions and quantum gates
See Wiki